Home » What is Object Oriented Programming? | The Ultimate Guide [2022]

What is Object Oriented Programming? | The Ultimate Guide [2022]

What is object oriented programming

Object oriented programming is a method of programming that involves the creation of intellectual objects that model a business problem that we are trying to solve (e.g., a bank account, a bank customer, and a bank manager – could all be objects in a bank computerized system) and with each object, we model that data associated with it and the behavior associated with it(What our computer program should allow that object to do).

In creating a object oriented program we define the properties of a class of objects (e.g. all bank accounts) and then create individual objects from this class (e.g. your bank account).

1. Why Object Oriented Programming is important?

Statistics show 70% of the cost of software is not incurred during its initial development phase but is incurred during subsequent years as the software is amended to meet the ever-changing needs of the organization for which it was developed.

For this reason, it is essential that software engineers do everything possible to ensure that software is easy to maintain during the years after its initial creation. The Object oriented programming paradigm aims to help overcome these problems by helping with analysis and design tasks during the initial software development phase and by ensuring that the software is robust and maintainable.

2. What is the structure of OOP?

OOP Structure

The structure of Object Oriented Programming depends on four main elements. That are as follows:

  • Encapsulation
  • Abstraction
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

2.1 What is Abstraction?

Abstraction is the purposeful suppression or hiding, of some details of a process or artifact, in order to bring out more clearly other aspects, details, or structures.

In forming an abstraction, or model, we purposely avoid the need to understand many details, concentrating instead on a few key features. We often describe this process with another term: information hiding.

2.2 What is Encapsulation?

Suppose instead of writing software we are part of a team working to create a new automobile. By separating the automobile into the parts of engine and transmission, it is possible to assign people to work on the two aspects more or less independently of each other.

We use the term encapsulation to mean that there is a strict division between the inner and the outer view. Those members of the team working on the engine need only an abstract (outside, as it were) view of the transmission, whereas those actually working on the transmission need a more detailed inside view.

2.3 What is Inheritance?

The next step in learning object-oriented programming is organizing classes into a hierarchical structure based on the concept of inheritance. By inheritance, we mean the property that instances of a child class (or subclass) can access both data and behavior (methods) associated with a parent class (or superclass).

2.4 What is Polymorphism?

At heart, the term means there is one name and many different meanings. But names are used for a variety of purposes (Variable names, function names, class names), and meanings can be defined in a number of different ways.

Polymorphism is a fancy name for a common idea. Someone who knows how to drive can get into and drive most cars because they have a set of shared key characteristics – steering wheel, gear stick, pedals for clutch, brake and accelerator, etc. – which the driver knows how to use. There will be lots of differences between any two cars but you can think of them as subclasses of a superclass that define these crucial shared operations. This is known as Polymorphism.

3. What are the basic concepts of Object Oriented Programming?

Alan Kay, considered by some to be the father of object-oriented programming, identified the following concepts as fundamental to OOP:

  1. Everything is an object.
  2. Computation is performed by objects communicating with each other, requesting that other objects perform actions. Objects communicate by sending and receiving messages. A message is a request for action bundled with whatever arguments may be necessary to complete the task.
  3. Each object has its own memory, which consists of other objects.
  4. Every Object is an instance of a class. A class simply represents a grouping of similar objects, such as integers or lists.
  5. The class is the repository for behavior associated with an object. That is, all objects that are instances of the same class can perform the same actions.
  6. Classes are organized into a singly rooted tree structure, called the inheritance hierarchy. Memory and behavior associated with instances of a class are automatically available to any class associated with a descendant in this tree structure.

4. What are the examples of Object Oriented Programming?

The examples of OOP-based programming languages include the following:

  1. Java
  2. C++
  3. C#
  4. Python
  5. R
  6. PHF
  7. Visual Basic.Net
  8. JavaScript
  9. Ruby
  10. Perl
  11. SIMSCRIPT
  12. Object Pascal
  13. Objective-C
  14. Dart
  15. Swift
  16. Scala
  17. Kotlin
  18. Common Lisp
  19. MATLAB
  20. Smalltalk

5. What are the benefits of Object Oriented Programming?

Whether or not you develop programs in an object oriented way, before you write the software you must first develop a model of what that software must be able to do and how it should work. Object oriented modeling is based on the ideas of Abstraction, Encapsulation, Inheritance, and Polymorphism.

There are the following three main benefits of OOP:

  1. Better abstractions (modeling information and behavior together)
  2. Better maintainability (more comprehensible, less fragile)
  3. Better reusability (classes are encapsulated components)

6. What are the best OOP languages?

The top languages that include Object Oriented Programming Paradigm include the following:

  1. Java
  2. C++
  3. Python
  4. C#
  5. JavaScript
  6. Ruby

7. What are Object Oriented Design Patterns?

When faced with the task of solving a new problem, most people will consider first previous problems they have encountered that seem to have characteristics in common with the new assignment.

These previous problems can be used as a model, and the new problem can be attacked in a similar fashion, making changes as necessary to fit the different circumstances.

This insight lies behind the idea of a software design pattern. A pattern is really nothing more than an attempt to document a proven solution to a problem so that future problems can be more easily handled in a similar fashion.

Related:
Unlock: How long does it take to learn a programming language?

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What is Object Oriented Programming? | The Ultimate Guide [2022]
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What is Object Oriented Programming? | The Ultimate Guide [2022]
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Unlock The Ultimate Guide To: What is object oriented programming? Alongwith everything else you need to know about it...
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Malik Kamal Akbar

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